The State of Machine Intelligence – AI Landscape

INTRODUCTION
Apache Spark is being an open-source distributed data processing engine for clusters, which provides a unified programming model engine across different types of data processing workloads and platforms
Spark Stack: Spark has the ability to run on a variety of cluster managers like YARN and Mesos, in addition to the Standalone cluster manager which comes bundled with Spark for standalone installation.

Spark-core:
Spark-core provides services such as managing the memory pool, scheduling of tasks on the cluster (Spark works as a Massively Parallel Processing (MPP) system when deployed in cluster mode), recovering failed jobs, and providing support to work with a wide variety of storage systems such as HDFS, S3, and so on. Spark-Core also provides the RDD APIs which are the basis of other higher-level APIs, and are the core programming elements on Spark.
Spark-SQL:
Spark SQL is one of the most popular modules of Spark designed for structured and semi-structured data processing.Spark SQL allows users to query structured data inside Spark programs using SQL or the DataFrame and the Dataset API, which is usable in Java, Scala, Python, and R.Because of the fact that the DataFrame API provides a uniform way to access a variety of data sources, including Hive datasets, Avro, Parquet, ORC, JSON, and JDBC, users should be able to connect to any data source the same way, and join across these multiple sources together. The usage of the Hive meta store by Spark SQL gives the user full compatibility with existing Hive data, queries, and UDFs.Users can seamlessly run their current Hive workload without modification on Spark.
Spark streaming
Spark Streaming is a module of Spark that enables the processing of data arriving in passive or live streams of data. Passive streams can be from static files that you choose to stream to your Spark cluster. This can include all sorts of data ranging from web server logs, social media activity (following a particular Twitter hashtag), sensor data from your car/phone/home, and so on.
MLlib
Spark MLlib allows developers to use Spark API and build machine learning algorithms by tapping into a number of data sources including HDFS, HBase, Cassandra, and so on. Spark is super fast with iterative computing and it performs 100 times better than MapReduce.
GraphX
GraphX is an API designed to manipulate graphs. The graphs can range from a graph of web pages linked to each other via hyperlinks to a social network graph on Twitter connected by followers or retweets, or a Facebook friends list.
Difference between Hadoop & Spark:

Spark architecture
At the high level, Apache Spark application architecture consists of the following key software components and it is important to understand each one of them to get to grips with the intricacies of the framework:
Driver programMaster nodeWorker nodeExecutorTasksSparkContextSQL contextSpark session
Here’s an overview of how some of these software components fit together within the overall architecture:

Driver program: The driver program is the main program of your Spark application. The machine where the Spark application process (the one that creates SparkContext and Spark Session) is running is called the Driver node, and the process is called the Driver process. The driver program communicates with the Cluster Manager to distribute tasks to the executors.
Cluster Manager: A cluster manager as the name indicates manages a cluster, and as discussed earlier Spark has the ability to work with a multitude of cluster managers including YARN, Mesos, and a Standalone cluster manager. A standalone cluster manager consists of two long-running daemons, one on the master node, and one on each of the worker nodes.
Worker: If you are familiar with Hadoop, a Worker Node is something similar to a slave node. Worker machines are the machines where the actual work is happening in terms of execution inside Spark executors. This process reports the available resources on the node to the master node. Typically each node in a Spark cluster except the master runs a worker process. We normally start one spark worker daemon per worker node, which then starts and monitors executors for the applications.
Executors: The master allocates the resources and uses the workers running across the cluster to create Executors for the driver. The driver can then use these executors to run its tasks. Executors are only launched when a job execution starts on a worker node. Each application has its own executor processes, which can stay up for the duration of the application and run tasks in multiple threads. This also leads to the side effect of application isolation and non-sharing of data between multiple applications. Executors are responsible for running tasks and keeping the data in memory or disk storage across them.
Tasks: A task is a unit of work that will be sent to one executor. Specifically speaking, it is a command sent from the driver program to an executor by serializing your Function object. The executor deserializes the command (as it is part of your JAR that has already been loaded) and executes it on a partition.
A partition is a logical chunk of data distributed across a Spark cluster. In most cases, Spark would be reading data out of a distributed storage and would partition the data in order to parallelize the processing across the cluster. For example, if you are reading data from HDFS, a partition would be created for each HDFS partition. Partitions are important because Spark will run one task for each partition. This, therefore, implies that the number of partitions is important. Spark, therefore, attempts to set the number of partitions automatically unless you specify the number of partitions manually e.g. sc.parallelize (data,numPartitions).
SparkContext: SparkContext is the entry point of the Spark session. It is your connection to the Spark cluster and can be used to create RDDs, accumulators, and broadcast variables on that cluster. It is preferable to have one SparkContext active per JVM, and hence you should call stop() on the active SparkContext before you create a new one. You might have noticed previously that in the local mode, whenever we start a Python or Scala shell we have a SparkContext object created automatically and the variable sc refers to the SparkContext object. We did not need to create the SparkContext but instead started using it to create RDDs from text files.
Spark Session: Spark session is the entry point to programming with Spark with the dataset and DataFrame API.

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